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Fish with Human Teeth

Fish with Human Teeth

There’s a type of fish found in South America, related to the piranha that is commonly called pacu. Although they are related, pacu and piranha have different teeth; one of the main differences is the alignment of the jaw. Piranhas are known for having very sharp and pointed teeth with a very noticeable underbite.

On the other hand, pacu has teeth that are much squarer and straight, which carry an uncanny resemblance to human teeth, which is also marked by a slight overbite or a subtle underbite.

Pacu feeds mostly on plants, not on other fish or scales. They can also get to be quite big, they can reach a length of 3.5 ft and weigh around 88 lb.

Fish with Human Teeth 2

Where does the name come from?

The name pacu has a Brazilian Indian/Guaraní origin. When the larger fish of the genus Colossoma made an entrance to the aquarium market in North America, it was labeled pacu.

However, in the Brazilian Amazon, the pacu is used for those that have a smaller or medium size, for example, those in the Metynnis, Mylossoma, MylesinusandMyleus genera.

Where do they live?

Pacus live in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. They can be found in rivers, lakes, flooded forests and floodplains in the Amazon, Orinoco, Sao Francisco, and Río de la Plata basins, but you can also find them in rivers across the Guianas.

They play an important role in the high diversity of neotropical fish fauna in these areas. Each subtype of pacu has a particular preference when it comes to their habitat and it has been found that some of them are migratory.

fish with human teeth 3

They’re an exotic species

Pacus have been introduced to the local waters in many places around the world, inside and out of South America. Sometimes people release them as a way to increase local fishing, but sometimes they’re released by aquarists when they become too large or too many for their aquariums.

This practice is illegal in many countries and it also very strongly advised against. They can be an invasive species and cause serious damage to the local ecosystem.

In some of the regions they have been spotted as individuals, they are likely to perish in the short term because of temperature; of the larger pacu species, the Piaractus are the ones that can bear the coldest temperatures, being capable of living in waters as cold as 59°F, but stops feeding below 64°F.

Pacus and humans

Pacus are widely fished and farmed. They are among the most caught fish in the Brazilian Amazon. They are also sold to home aquarium owners, often sold as “vegetarian piranhas” and when properly taken care of, they can be quite responsive pets.

However, they do require a large tank because their size isn’t limited to their living space; a common misconception. Also, while they’re not really carnivorous, they can bite humans, and very hard. People have been known to need surgery or in some cases even lose their finger to a pacu bite.

They are also a popular dish in many parts of South America, with their flavor sometimes compared to that of tilapia, rainbow trout, and striped bass. They are described as having a sweet and mild flavor.

Best Dentists in Steubenville, Ohio

Best Dentists in Steubenville, Ohio

If you are looking for a highly trained and experienced dentist in Steubenville, Ohio, then your search ends here. We have a compiled list which has complete information regarding best dentists near you.

Scroll down the list of the “Best dentists in Steubenville, Ohio” to find the dentist with all latest technology and cooperative nature which will help to restore your healthy smile. We wish you good luck!!

Aspen Dental

Aspen Dental dentists are dedicated to making it easier to get the care you need. They believe in treating each patient like family and providing comprehensive care in a compassionate and judgment-free environment.

Doctor(s): Dr. M. Yang, Dr. E. William, and Dr. C. Okezie
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (740) 901-0985
Location: 100 Mall Dr, Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: https://www.aspendental.com/dentist/oh/steubenville/100-mall-dr/dentist-and-services

Patterson Gary T DMD

Dr. Patterson is trained to diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases of the gums, teeth, and jaw. Whether it’s general dentistry, emergency care, full or partial dentures, cosmetic dental services, orthodontics, periodontal care, dental implants, and oral surgery, Patterson Gary T DMD has the tools, skills and care to create a lifetime of healthy, happy smiles for your entire family.

Doctor(s): Dr. Patterson
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (740) 282-5100
Location: 141 Brady Cir W Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: http://www.oralsurgeryinc.com/

Best Dentists in Steubenville, Ohio

Brown Thomas R DDS Inc

Dr. Brown is a Steubenville native and was educated at West Virginia University and the Ohio State University where he received his doctorate in dental surgery. He received a fellowship in the Academy of General Dentistry in recognition of extensive post-doctoral education and successful passage of the certification examination.

Doctor(s): Dr. Thomas Brown
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (740) 264-4493
Location: 444 Main St, Steubenville, OH 43953
Visit Now: http://www.tbrowndds.com/

John J Vallera DDS

Dr. John Vallera is dedicated to creating outstanding smiles for his patients using the latest technologies available. He has been practicing for 33 years. He received his dental degree from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH in 1984.

Doctor(s): Dr. John Vallera
Years in Practice: 33 years
Contact Information: (740) 264-5945
Location:  200 Stanton Blvd, Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: http://steubenvillesmiles.com/

Best Dentists in Steubenville, Ohio

Emami Nasser DMD DDS

Dr. Nasser Emami, D.M.D., D.D.S. offers over 30 years of experience. Dr. Emami specializes in oral & maxillofacial surgery. His services include extractions, facial trauma, oral pathology, facial cosmetic surgery, wisdom teeth surgery, treatment of TMJ offering in-office IV sedation/general anesthesia. The center offers many types of dental implants. They also accept Care Credit.

Doctor(s): Dr. Nasser Emami
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information:  (740) 264-5300
Location:  4100 Johnson Rd, Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: https://www.aaoms.org/

Starkey Theodore G DDS

Dr. Theodore G Starkey, DDS is a Dentist primarily located in Steubenville, OH. His specialties include General Dentistry. He speaks English. He accepts many insurances.

Doctor(s): Dr. Theodore G Starkey
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (740) 264-1913
Location: 520 Main St Steubenville, OH 43953
Visit Now: NA

Best Dentists in Steubenville, Ohio

William D Robertson, DDS 

William D Robertson, DDS is a dentist/dental office located in Steubenville, OH. A dentist is trained to diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases of the gums, teeth, and jaw.

Doctor(s):  Dr. William D Robertson
Years in Practice:
Contact Information:
(740) 282-1121
517 N 4th St Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: NA

Dr. Doyoung Choi, DDS

Dr. Doyoung Choi, DDS is an orthodontics practitioner in Steubenville, OH and has been practicing for 5 years. She graduated from West Virginia University School of Dentistry in 2010 and practices orthodontics and orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics.

Doctor(s):  Dr. Doyoung Choi
Years in Practice: 5 Years
Contact Information: 
(740) 283-3641
2203 Sunset Blvd Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: NA

Best Dentists in Steubenville, Ohio

Dr. Nikki Nazionale, DDS

Dr. Nikki Nazionale, DDS is a dentistry practitioner in Steubenville, OH. She practices dentistry. Her specialties include General Dentistry.

Doctor(s): Dr. Nikki Nazionale
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information:
(740) 282-5351
2017 Sunset Boulevard Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: NA

Dr. Joseph Clause Jr, DDS

Dr. Joseph V Clause Jr, DDS is a Dentist primarily located in Steubenville, OH. He has 27 years of experience. His specialties include General Dentistry. He speaks English.

Doctor(s): Dr. Joseph Clause
Years in Practice: 27 Years
Contact Information: 
(740) 282-8886
Location: 329 N 4th St Ste 1 Steubenville, OH 43952
Visit Now: NA

Best Dentists in Portland, TN

Best Dentists in Portland, TN

Want a list of top dentists in Portland? If you are looking for a dentist who will do what is best for your teeth, for your convenience we are here with the list of best dentists near your location which will help you to choose the nearest and best one for you.

Have a look on our list with the dentists who make sure all patients walk away from their treatment satisfied and pleased with their experience. Best of luck!!

Kirk O. Wells DDS

Dr. Kirk O. Wells DDS is a male dentist in Portland, TN. He is licensed to practice by the state board in Tennessee (DS4337TN). His specialty is Dentistry.

Doctor(s): Dr. Kirk O Wells
Years in Practice: 36 years
Contact Information: (615) 325-6902
Location: 109 Highway 52 E Ste A, Portland, TN 37148
Visit Now: NA

Wayne B Long DDS

Dr. Long has been my dentist for more than 30 years. He and his staff are always friendly and courteous and the patient comes first. Dr. Long accepts multiple insurance plans including Aetna, Dental Network of America and many more.

Doctor(s): Dr. Wayne B Long
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (615) 325-9690
Location: 100 Main St Ste 105, Portland, TN 37148
Visit Now: NA

Best Dentists in Portland, TN

Raum Family Dentistry

Dr. Raum and his Staff are not looking to do a quick fix or expensive dental work. They are looking to build a long-term relationship with your whole family. Maintaining proper function is top priority in our Practice.

Doctor(s):  Dr. Raum
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (615) 325-4466
Location: 307 Reed St, Portland, TN 37148
Visit Now: http://raumfamilydentistry.com/

Mitchell Melvin Dds

Dr. Melvin Mitchell, DDS is a dentistry practitioner in Portland, TN. He practices dentistry. Dr. Mitchell accepts multiple insurance plans including Aetna, Delta Dental and MetLife.

Doctor(s): Dr. Melvin Mitchell
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (615) 325-9837
Location:  704 S Broadway St Ste 1, Portland, TN 37148
Visit Now: NA

Best Dentists in Portland, TN

Wiesemann Orthodontics

At Wiesemann Orthodontics, you are greeted by name at the door and we create a professional yet fun atmosphere for you and your family. Dr. Ryan Wiesemann and his team always take the time to get to know their patients on a personal level.

Doctor(s): Dr. Ryan Wiesemann
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (615) 325-4677
Location: 307 Reed St, Portland, TN 37148
Visit Now: https://www.worthodontics.com/

Dr. Edward F Kirkpatrick Jr DDS

Dr. Edward F. Kirkpatrick Jr, DDS is located in Portland, Tennessee, and was founded in 1984. He has 54 years of experience. He practices dentistry.

Doctor(s): Dr. Edward F Kirkpatrick
Years in Practice: 54 years
Contact Information: (615) 325-4466
Location: 307 Reed St Portland, TN 37148
Visit Now: NA

Best Dentists in Portland, TN

Kool Smiles General Dentistry for Kids

Kool Smiles is a network of local dental offices dedicated to expanding access to quality dental care for children and families in underserved communities. Kool Smiles provides preventative care, diagnostic imaging and a full range of restorative care supported by electronic health records

Doctor(s): NA
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (800) 232-8090
Location: NA
Visit Now: https://www.mykoolsmiles.com/

Keen Kay

Doctor(s): NA
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: 615-325-9690
Location: 100 Main St, Portland, TN 37148, USA
Visit Now: NA

Best Dentists in La Crosse, Wisconsin

Best Dentists in La Crosse, Wisconsin

If you are looking for a new dental home that is modern, comfortable and caring, we would happy to help you in the way with our list of the “Best Dentists in La Crosse, Wisconsin”. Here you will easily find all the information related to the dentist for you precious smile.

Explore our list which has the best dentists of La Crosse, Wisconsin who provides gentle approach to oral care with helpful tips to make your smile healthy always. All the best!!

Moore John W, DDS

Dr. John Moore has been practicing Dentistry in the La Crosse area since June of 2002. A native of Appleton, Dr. Moore was intrigued with the La Crosse area when visiting for ski races at Mt La Crosse while racing for UW-Madison. He and his wife, Dr. Kerrie Moore, met at Marquette School of Dentistry.

Doctor(s): Dr. John Moore
Years in Practice: 16 years
Contact Information: (608) 782-7374
Location: 1630 Losey Blvd S La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: https://www.mooresmiles.net/

Frederick Kriemelmeyer DDS Holistic Dentistry

They believe that a visit to the dentist should be as pleasant and stress-free as possible. Their office was designed to keep patient comfort in mind. Whether you need to schedule a general checkup or require more extensive dental work, they’ll address any concerns you might have prior to treatment and answer all of your questions in a relaxed, pressure-free setting.

Doctor(s): Dr. Frederick Kriemelmeyer
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 784-1730
Location: 319 Main St Ste 400 La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: https://frederickkriemelmeyer.com/

Best Dentists in La Crosse, Wisconsin

Kevin B Cook, DDS

At Kevin B. Cook, D.D.S., S.C. their philosophy is to provide treatment to the whole person with a special focus on how your teeth and gums relate to your total body health. They want you to be confident that your smile achieves your goals for comfort, function and appearance.

Doctor(s): Dr. Kevin B Cook
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 782-9667
Location: 1800 State Rd 16 La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: https://www.kevinbcookdds.com/

Main Street Dental

Main Street Dental has provided quality care for La Crosse patients for over 30 years, so their tradition of making gentle dentistry convenient is longstanding; and so is their commitment to providing gentle dentistry for your family.

Doctor(s): Dr. Dan Kujak
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 784-4063
Location: 1200 Main St La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: https://mainstreetdentallax.com/dr-kujak/

Midwest Dental

As your care team, the dentists, hygienists and dental assistants at Midwest Dental pledge to provide a great experience and exceed your expectations of what it means to visit the dentist. You can expect your care team to be honest and open about your treatment plan, and to act with your health in mind.

Doctor(s): NA
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 782-8834
Location: 1600 Losey Blvd S La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: https://midwest-dental.com/locations/wisconsin-dental-centers/la-crosse-wi-east/?lp

Best Dentists in La Crosse, Wisconsin

Erica Stanek, DDS- Stanek Dental

At Stanek Dental, their mission is to serve the patients in a caring and courteous manner.  In doing so, they hope to facilitate long-term relationships with the patients. Their goal is to offer professional care with minimum discomfort, always making the patient’s needs the top priority.

Doctor(s): Dr. Erica Stanek
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information:  (608) 782-5675
Location: 1200 Main St La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: https://stanekdental.com/

Coulee Family Dental

Coulee Family Dental is easily within reach for anyone in the Tri-State area. We are conveniently located in the Dental Center Building on the edge of Downtown La Crosse and offer flexible hours to better serve you.

Doctor(s): Dr. Joseph Kotnour and Dr. Christine Jones
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 782-3102
Location: 201 7th St S, La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: http://couleefamilydental.com/

Yahnke Dental

Dr. Jay and his staff offer comfort and the latest in dental technology for your entire family. Regardless of your family’s needs, they ensure everything from your routine care to all procedures is comfortable, and that you leave with a healthy smile.

Doctor(s): Dr. Jay
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 781-2822
Location: 2102 State Road 16 La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: http://www.mylacrossedentist.com/

Best Dentists in La Crosse, Wisconsin

LaCrosse Pediatric Dentistry

Dr. Jon Hanks graduated cum laude from the University of Texas School of Dentistry in San Antonio. He gained experience practicing as a general dentist in Colorado before heading back to his alma mater to complete a two-year pediatric dental residency.

Doctor(s):  Dr. Jon Hanks
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 782-4054
Location: 2 Copeland Ave Ste 203, La Crosse, WI 54603
Visit Now: http://www.lacrossepediatricdentistry.com/

HG Orthodontics

HG Orthodontics offers a family friendly atmosphere that thrives on patient satisfaction! They offer the latest in modern orthodontics, implementing SureSmile robotics and iCat imaging. Orthodontic Specialists are committed to offering our patients the shortest treatment time possible!

Doctor(s):  Dr. Brandon Knapp
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (608) 782-6778
Location: 1200 Main St, La Crosse, WI 54601
Visit Now: http://greatriverortho.com/our-team/

Best Dentists in Rockingham, NC

Best Dentists in Rockingham, NC

Are you looking for the best dentists in Rockingham, at your location? Don’t worry! We are going to help you with our list of the best Dentist near you with all the necessary information that help to make your smile beautiful and healthy.

Explore the full list of “Best Dentist in Rockingham, North Carolina” in order to find the best dentist for you, who makes it easy for you to fight against your fear from the dentist. All the best!!

Affordable Dentures

Affordable Dentures has an on-site dental lab that fabricates new dentures and provides repairs and relines, often with same-day service. Dr. Griffin and his staff are proud to offer professional, compassionate care to patients that visit this practice.

Doctor(s): Dr. J. Greg Griffin
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (910) 205-7745
Location: 784 E US Hwy 74 Rockingham, NC 28379
Visit Now: https://www.affordabledentures.com/office/rockingham/

Aiken R Kevin DDS

Dr. Kevin Aiken is a second generation dentist from Rockingham, NC. He has experience with CAD/CAM dentistry, surgical placement, and restoration of dental implants, clear aligner orthodontic therapy, digital radiography, and soft tissue laser surgery, though he enjoys all aspects of practicing general dentistry.

Doctor(s): Dr. Kevin Aiken
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (910) 895-5210
Location: 715 S Long Dr. Rockingham, NC 28379
Visit Now: NA

Richmond Dental Laboratory

You should talk to more dental medical labs near Rockingham, North Carolina before choosing your Dental Medical Lab. Richmond Dental Laboratory is classified under dental laboratories and has been in business for 10 or more years. With an annual income of up to $500,000, this business employs 5 to 9 associates.

Doctor(s): NA
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (910) 895-2496
Location: 301 Leak St Rockingham, NC 28379
Visit Now: NA

Leonard H Haltiwanger, DMD MS

Dr. Bill Haltiwanger who was originally opened his orthodontic practice in Rockingham in 1972. He saw first-hand the difference that orthodontic care made in the lives of his patients, and it is his goal to continue in that tradition in his practice as well.

Doctor(s): Dr. Bill Haltiwanger
Years in Practice: 46 Years
Contact Information: (910) 997-2204
Location: 719 S Long Dr. Rockingham, NC 28379
Visit Now: NA

Brannon Dawn G DDS

Dr. Dawn G Brannon, DDS is a Dentist primarily located in Rockingham, NC. Her specialties include General Dentistry. Dr. Brannon is affiliated with Brannon & Alderman PA in Rockingham. She is licensed to practice by the state board in North Carolina (4466). She accepts multiple insurance plans including Delta Dental and Medicaid.

Doctor(s): Dr. Dawn Gilmore Brannon
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information:  (910) 997-6663
Location: 120 Mallard Ln Rockingham, NC 28379
Visit Now: NA

Malan Family Dentistry

Malan Family Dentistry will strive to create a comfortable atmosphere while staying committed to dentistry as a profession.  With the help of his staff, Dr. Malan looks forward to giving his patients a positive experience and the happy, healthy smile they’ve always wanted.

Doctor(s): Dr. David Malan
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: 910. 895. 5210
Location: 715 S Long Dr. Rockingham, NC 28379
Visit Now: http://malanfamilydentistry.com/#eat-together

Firsthealth Moore Regional Hospital in Rockingham, NC

FirstHealth is one of the premier medical systems in the Southeast. It is committed to offering a level of medical excellence that is recognized among the best. A wholly owned subsidiary of FirstHealth of the Carolinas, FirstCarolinaCare offers a wide range of health benefit plans for businesses throughout the FirstHealth service area.

Doctor(s): Hanie Abdel-Masih, D.O.
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: 910-417-3850, Fax: (910) 417-3860
Location: 921 Long Drive Suite 101, Rockingham, NC, 28379
Visit Now: https://www.firsthealth.org/

Kool Smiles General Dentistry for Kids

Kool Smiles is a network of local dental offices dedicated to expanding access to quality dental care for children and families in underserved communities. Kool Smiles provides preventative care, diagnostic imaging and a full range of restorative care supported by electronic health records

Doctor(s): NA
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: (800) 232-8090
Location: NA
Visit Now: https://www.mykoolsmiles.com/

Image result for Best Dentists in Rockingham, NC

Harwell Palmer, DDS, PA

Harwell Palmer is a General Dentist (General Dentistry dentist) practicing in Rockingham, North Carolina. He is a Dentist facility at 617 South Long Drive in Rockingham, NC. General dentists are the primary dental care providers for patients of all ages. Call Palmer Harwell Dr. Dentist at (910) 997-5051 to schedule an appointment in Rockingham, NC or get more information.

Doctor(s): Dr. Harwell Palmer
Years in Practice: NA
Contact Information: +1 910-997-5051
Location: 617 S Long Dr, Rockingham, NC 28379, USA
Visit Now: https://harwellpalmerdds.com

Farnaz f Mirian, DDS

Dr. Mirfattah Mirian, DPM is a podiatric surgery specialist in Rockingham, NC. He specializes in podiatric surgery and podiatric foot & ankle surgery. He has 32 years of experience. His specialties include Foot and Ankle Surgery and Podiatry. He speaks English.

Doctor(s): Dr. Farnaz Mirian
Years in Practice: 32 years
Contact Information: (910) 997-3779, Fax: (910) 997-7433
Location: 127 Caroline St, Rockingham, NC 28379
Visit Now: NA

How to Get Gum Out of Clothes

How to Get Gum Out of Clothes

There are two things one never wants to have to deal with when it comes to chewing gum: gum in your hair and gum stuck to your clothes or other fabrics. Gum can be very tricky to remove from jeans, jackets, shirts, sofas or carpets, but it is not impossible.

There are several methods for making it easier and not making it worse, which can also happen if you try to just yank it off or some other desperate move that will only deepen its grip.

Sometimes you don’t even know how or when it got stuck on your clothes, but it really doesn’t matter; what’s important is that you’re walking around with a piece of gum stuck to your clothes, and everyone can see it, probably, even if you can’t (like if you sat on a piece of gum and then you’re wondering why everyone is looking at your behind, and no, it’s not because your butt looks particularly attractive today).

So the next thought that should go through your mind is “how do I get this mess off me?!?”

Getting this Mess Off

The first thing you have to do is to try and pick off as much as you can and if you’re going to use any chemical solution, it’s always a good idea to test it in a part of the piece of clothing that won’t be visible, just in case it stains it or damages it in some other way. Also, we recommend you don’t use things that will definitely stain or damage the fabric, like hairspray or peanut butter (leave that for the PB&J you’ll want later on).

Once you do remove the gum, make sure you pre-treat the area with your usual stain remover or a good dab of soap; laundry or dish soap will do the trick, before you put it in your washing machine. Make absolutely sure that ALL the gum or the stain is out before you put it in the dryer.


Here are some methods that actually work and aren’t too much of a hassle to try:

  • Take as Much Off as You Can: with the help of another piece of gum or a strong tape, like duct tape, pull off as much as you can from the fabric. Put it directly on top, to avoid adding more sticky mess to the surrounding area.
  • Ice Ice Baby: you can try putting ice cubes or a freezer pack right on top of the gum for around 20 minutes. This will make the gum hard, and you can try just scraping it off with a thin piece of plastic or a dull knife.
  • Freezer Burn: it’s the same principle as using the ice cubes, but instead you just put the garment inside the freezer for about an hour.
  • Heat Treat: put the piece of clothing on top of a cardboard, with the gum side down. Use medium-heat on an iron and press it firmly on the back of the fabric, but make sure you don’t move it around or you will just spread it all over the place. The point is to have the gum transfer to the cardboard when the heat melts it.
  • Alcohol Swabs: with a cotton ball, apply rubbing alcohol on the gum. Let it soak well and through and wait until it dries; which should take less than a minute. Use duct tape to pull of the gum from the fabric.

These methods won’t damage your clothes or make the mess worse, which is really what we all want, right?

White Spots on Teeth

White Spots on Teeth

For some people the whiter their teeth are, the better. They will go to great lengths to make sure their pearly whites remain that way; they brush thoroughly every day, go to the dentist twice a year, use teeth-whitening products, and stay away from foods or drinks that might stain them.

However, in some cases teeth that seem to be perfectly healthy start showing a sort of white blotch or blotches on the surface. It draws attention because they are a different shade of white and it can be quite unsightly. The reason for these white spots can vary and they can be an indication of decay, so it’s good to know why they show up.

It’s quite common to have with spots appear on teeth for more than one reason, so it’s up to your dentist to determine why it’s happening and what the appropriate way to treat them would be. Some of the causes for these white stains include:

  • Diet: if you eat foods that are highly acidic, they can cause white spots on your teeth. The acid in these foods will eat away the enamel of your teeth and this is the layer that is in charge of protecting your teeth. High sugar intake also promotes the formation of acidic plaque that erodes enamel as well. These foods and drinks include sodas, certain fruits (lemons, grapefruit and oranges) and sweets. If your diet is causing you to have acid reflux, it will also contribute to tooth erosion. When your enamel starts to break down, you will feel tooth sensitivity to cold or hot food and drinks.
  • Fluorosis: while we use fluoride to help us prevent tooth decay and strengthen teeth, too much of it when the teeth are developing will actually have the opposite effect. It will cause decay and discoloration. It’s one of the reasons why it’s important to supervise children when they are brushing their teeth, since this excess of fluoride occurs in part if they swallow toothpaste instead of spitting it out. Another characteristic of fluorosis is pitted enamel, which will make brushing and cleaning teeth a lot harder.
  • Enamel hypoplasia: this is a structural defect in which the person has less enamel than normal. This can result from a nutritional problem that would cause a significant amount of mineral loss from the teeth. Things like celiac disease could be one of the culprits, since the body struggles with absorbing certain nutrients due to a weak immune system. Enamel hypoplasia also includes the teeth having grooves and lines, as well as sensitivity.
  • Plaque accumulation: this is a direct result of bad hygiene, since it would allow bacteria to accumulate. Sometimes it is also a side effect of orthodontic treatment, since brackets can make it difficult to properly clean between them and it can serve as a bacteria trap.
  • Sleeping with your mouth open: sometimes when you wake up, you might see some small white spots on your teeth that go away after a few hours. This is caused when a person sleeps with their mouth open and the enamel becomes dehydrated because of it. Once saliva coats the tooth again, it remineralizes back to its original state.



If you want to remove those white spots from your teeth, there are several ways to get rid of them. All of these procedures should be done by a dentist.

  • Microabrasion: this removes a layer of enamel from the tooth and it can remove white spots and other stains.
  • Bleaching: it’s a method for tooth-whitening and it helps balance the color of the tooth enamel. It lightens the entire tooth to match the white spots. However, if the spots were caused by fluoride overuse, it won’t be effective since the spots will take a different shade of white and still be visible.
  • Veneers: if the spots are too extensive, maybe the dentist will suggest using porcelain veneers to conceal them.
  • Chin Straps: these will help you if you sleep with your mouth open.


White spots can be prevented most of the time by having a good dental hygiene and avoiding highly acidic food and drink. There are toothpastes available that are designed to remineralize enamel and protect the teeth from developing white spots too.

Teeth Falling Out Dream

Teeth Falling Out Dream

According to Freud, dreams where your teeth fall out express anxiety triggered by sexual repression and wanting to be nurtured. This imagery, which can be quite disturbing, has the tendency to appear when the person is going through moments of transition that are important in their life. They can also have other meanings, both positive and negative.

Negative Meanings:

  • It can symbolize insecurities: when a person dreams that their teeth are falling out, it can also be associated with important life changes and loss. These changes can provoke feelings of vulnerability and insecurity in connection with those changes that are happening. The changes don’t have to be abrupt to manifest themselves with these images. What is a constant is they are emotionally charged and the way they are expressed is through the symbolic falling of teeth.
  • Costly compromises are being made: sometimes one is at crossroads and is in a way forced to make a compromise or make a decision that will not be satisfying to you or will throw your life out of balance. When faced with limited options in front of an important life choice, teeth falling in your dreams is a common occurrence. It symbolises that the risk one is taking could end up being quite costly.
  • It can also point out an unwillingness to take a decision: this interpretation can go in hand with the previous one, where the person has to make a choice, but stands still at the crossroads without choosing the path to take.
  • Concerns with self-image: this includes a fear of aging or losing one’s ability to be productive or efficient. This anxiety will remind us about problems that might be going on in our daily lives that involve assertiveness, self-esteem, or decision-making.
  • According to Freud: Freud points out that teeth falling out in a dream is a symbol of castration and fear regarding the male genitals. So when this dream came up, in both men and women, he thought that it could be associated to anxiety caused by sexuality or the sexual interaction between the dreamer and their partner.

Positive Meanings:

When interpreting dreams, an important consideration is that when there’s a seemingly negative message behind it, one should also look for the other side of the story, one that can in turn be positive. Teeth falling out can also mean that there are positive changes happening in the person’s life.

  • Signs of personal expansion: a more modern perspective on dream interpretation states that teeth are a symbol of growing up, developing yourself and expanding. While a tooth falling out in childhood represents the loss of a part of us, an important part of us, it can also be seen as the beginning of the transition to a new stage in life. So these dreams can be interpreted as a sign that you’re changing into something new, a better, more experienced you.
  • Wishing to be nurtured: this can take us back to a time when we didn’t have teeth and we were nourished by our mothers. Sometimes when faced with problems that can seem insurmountable and challenging decisions, we just want to go back to that moment in life when we were protected. The positive spin this has is that it’s a symbol of potential growth when you look closely at the balance between what you need and what the moment is asking of you.
  • Strength and self-esteem: teeth are usually seen as symbols of personal power and self-esteem. If the content of the dream includes violence, then the dream can be expressing aggressiveness or personal strength. It can be an invitation to look at the way one is using their instincts and primal drives in our personal lives on a daily basis.


What is Xanthan Gum?

What is Xanthan Gum?

Xanthomonas campestris is a compound that that is obtained when you mix fermented sugars with a certain type of bacteria. It is normally used to produce medicines. Some of the applications it has is as an agent to lower blood sugar and cholesterol in patients who suffer from diabetes.

Another known use for this component is as a laxative, as well as a saliva substitute in people diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome, where the amount of saliva produced by the body is insufficient. It also serves to prevent ingredients in food from separating.


In many industries, like food and personal hygiene, it is used as a stabilizing and thickening agent. It helps prevent oil separation in salad dressings and sauces by stabilizing the emulsion.

Another common use in the food industry is by helping suspend solids, for example spices. Its thickening properties is what allows ice creams to have the desired consistency and texture.

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For those that have swallowing disorders, xantham gum is used to thicken liquids because it doesn’t alter the flavor or the color in foods and drinks. People that have gluten intolerance, will see xantham gum in the ingredient list of products used for baking, since it gives the batter or dough the stickiness that normally would be given by gluten.

It is being studied too to see if it can be used in tissue engineering in order to build hydrogels and scaffolds that will serve as a support structure in three dimensional tissue formation.

Health concerns

Workers that had been exposed to xantham gum dust were evaluated and evidence was found to link it with respiratory symptoms. Also in 2011 the FDA raised a concern that its use in premature babies to develop necrotizing enterocolitis, especially with a product named SimplyThick, so it released a warning to parents, health care providers and caregivers.

When producing xantham gum, some nutrients used may be derived from crops that are known to produce allergies, like wheat or soy. While the process for making the gum eliminates the main source of allergies, through metabolization during the fermentation, some residues that are unavoidable to completely get rid of, will still be present in the final product.

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Allergic reactions or sensitization because of these trace residual protein materials or fragments are, while possible, extremely rare; so xantham gum is not listed as an allergen or sensitizer. As a matter of fact, this ingredient is commonly used as a substitute for grains for those who are allergic or have sensitivities to grains.

Xantham gum is very good at binding with water, so when it goes through the intestine it can result in an efficient laxative. However, in tests done to volunteers to test this, the dosage used was much higher than the amount you would normally find within the food or products it is used in.

It also showed that in some people, their reaction to xantham gum, with bloating and diarrhea as their main symptoms, was after consuming much smaller amounts.